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Workforce Management

Employment at Will Laws by State

Unlike most nations, the US labor law heavily favors employers. Employment is generally ‘at will’, and can therefore be terminated at any time. There is usually no burden on employers to prove “just cause”—they simply have to avoid discriminatory or illegal action. However, many states do apply important exemptions.

To visualize these difference, we’ve created a map detailing at-will employment laws across the US.

employment laws across the US

Here are at-will employment rules by state broken down in a helpful table.

State  Public Policy Exemption Covenant of Good Faith Implied Contract Exception
Alabama  No Yes Yes
Alaska  Yes Yes Yes
Arizona  Yes Yes Yes
Arkansas  Yes Yes Yes
California  Yes Yes Yes
Colorado  Yes Yes Yes
Connecticut  Yes Yes Yes
Delaware  Yes Yes No
Florida  No No No
Georgia  No No No
Hawaii  Yes Yes Yes
Idaho  Yes Yes Yes
Illinois  Yes Yes Yes
Indiana  Yes Yes No
Iowa  Yes Yes Yes
Kansas  Yes Yes Yes
Kentucky  Yes Yes Yes
Louisiana  No No No
Maine  No No Yes
Maryland  Yes Yes Yes
Massachusetts  Yes Yes No
Michigan  Yes Yes Yes
Minnesota  Yes Yes Yes
Mississippi  Yes Yes Yes
Missouri  Yes Yes No
Montana*  Yes Yes No
Nebraska  No Yes Yes
Nevada  Yes Yes Yes
New Hampshire  Yes Yes Yes
New Jersey  Yes Yes Yes
New Mexico  Yes Yes Yes
New York  No No Yes
North Carolina  Yes Yes No
North Dakota  Yes Yes Yes
Ohio  Yes Yes Yes
Oklahoma  Yes Yes Yes
Oregon  Yes Yes Yes
Pennsylvania  Yes Yes No
Rhode Island  No No No
South Carolina  Yes Yes Yes
South Dakota  Yes Yes Yes
Tennessee  Yes Yes Yes
Texas  Yes Yes No
Utah  Yes Yes Yes
Vermont  Yes Yes Yes
Virginia  Yes Yes No
Washington  Yes Yes Yes
West Virginia  Yes Yes Yes
Wisconsin  Yes Yes Yes
Wyoming  Yes Yes Yes

* Employment at will only applies during 6-month probation period.

Now let’s explain what that means for businesses…

What is Employment at Will?

Employment at will is the principle that an employer can terminate employment for any reason, provided that is not illegal. All states have some form of employment at will although mostly with some restrictions—notably Montana, in line with European nations, only allows this during an initial 6-month probation period.

What are the Advantages of Employment at Will?

In theory, at-will employment offers freedom and flexibility to both employers and employees. It gives employers the financial security that they are able to reduce labor costs fast. It also means that employees can choose to leave a job they dislike without having to work any notice period. However, critics claim that at-will employment leads to job insecurity, disadvantaging workers.

Exemptions to Employment at Will

  • Public Policy Exemption

    The majority of states apply some form of public policy exemption, preventing the termination of employment if this would violate public policy. This means that an employee can’t be fired for refusing to do something that would go against state law, for reporting a violation of the law or when an employee has acted in the greater good of the public, like performing jury duty.

  • Covenant of Good Faith

    Many states also maintain a further exception: requiring employers act in good faith. For instance, the termination of an employee’s employment immediately before they were due to receive a large commission could be interpreted as being in bad faith. Similarly, an employer cannot give false reasons for an employee’s termination.

    This covenant could also be violated in a case where an employee was terminated after a long time where they had been given positive performance reviews and led to believe that their job was secure—in order to prove that the termination had not be conducted in bad faith, employer’s might be expected to show “just cause”.

  • Implied Contract Exemption

    A further common exemption is for cases when a contract, employee handbook or other employer behavior implies that an employee will only be terminated for “just cause”—even when employees have signed contracts stating that their employment is at-will.

Additional Exceptions

While the exemptions listed above apply only in certain states, there are other circumstances in which employment at will doesn’t apply:

  • Public Sector Employees

    Typically, public-sector employees are not subject to at-will employment.

  • Unionized Jobs

    When employment contracts are the subject of union bargaining, a common demand is that employees can only be terminated for “just cause”.

  • Contract Workers

    If employees have a contract that lists a specific start and end date, there will likely be stipulations on the exact circumstances in which the contract can be terminated.

  • Discrimination

    Civil rights legislation protects employees from termination in the case of discrimination on the basis of race, gender, religion, national origin, sex, genetic information or age.

  • Protected Employment

    Employment cannot be terminated when an employee is on job protected leave, such as that under the Family and Medical Leave Act legislation.

  • Whistleblowing

    State and federal laws protect whistleblowers against retaliation.

Paycor is not a legal, tax, benefit, accounting or investment advisor. All communication from Paycor should be confirmed by your company’s legal, tax, benefit, accounting or investment advisor before making any decisions.

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